The leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States is chronic, or noncommunicable, diseases. The impact of chronic diseases on health and wellness can be significantly altered by individual health and behavior choices or modifications. Furthermore, the burden of chronic disease goes beyond health and the health care system and may influence an individual’s wellness. The purposes of this article are:  to provide a basis for understanding the terms “health” and “wellness,” to identify the knowledge and skills physical therapists need to address behaviors that promote health and wellness and treat and protect against chronic disease, and to discuss barriers and opportunities associated with integrating the promotion of health and wellness into physical therapist practice.